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张多多

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小学英语语法总结(一)  

2016-11-22 15:42:24|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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小学英语语法总结

一、时 态 小 结

时态

定义

特征

动词的变化规则

表示经常性或习惯性的动作.

every day/morning/…

usually

第三人称单数的变化情况:

1.       一般情况在词尾直接加-s

2.       以ch,sh,s,x或o结尾的词加-es

3. 以辅音字母加y结尾的词,将y改成i再加-es

表示现在或现在一阶段正在进行的动作.

now/ look/ listen

现在分词的变化情况:

1. 一般情况在词尾直接加-ing

2. 以e结尾的词,去掉e再加-ing

3. 以重读闭音节结尾的词,双写最后一个字母加-ing

表示过去某时发生的动作或情况.

yesterday morning/afternoon/evening

last year/month

a minute ago/an hour ago

this morning/afternoon/evening

动词过去式的变化情况:

1. 一般情况在词尾直接加-ed

2. 以e结尾的词加-d

3. 以辅音字母加y结尾的词,将y改成i再加-ed

4. 以重读闭音节结尾的词,双写最后一个字母加-ed

表示将要发生的事情

tomorrow

the day after tomorrow/

the next day/Monday…

at the weekend/tonight

tomorrow night/morning/afternoon

主要构成

be going to/will + 动词原形

             be +形容词

凡是在must, mustn’t, can, can’t, let’s, don’t, maywill后的一定要用动词的原形

二、名词的复数。

 名词按其数,可分两种:可数名词和不可数名词.

   可数名词的复数变化规则:

1. 一般情况下,直接在词尾加-s, 如:girl-girls, book-books, pen-pens

2. 以s,x,sh,ch结尾的词,在词后加-es, 如:class-classes, box-boxes, match-matches,

3. 以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y 为i 再加-es, 如:city-cities, family-families, country- countries

4. 以f或fe结尾的,变f或fe为v再加-es, 如:knife-knives, wife-wives, life-lives,

5. 以o 结尾的加-es或-s, 如: radio-radios, tomato-tomatoes, potato-potatoes, zoo-zoos, photo-photos,

6. man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, child-children,

三、形容词的比较级、最高级。

    形容词有比较级与最高级之分, 单音节词的变化规则:

1. 一般情况下,直接在词尾加-er或-est, 如:small-smaller-smallest, short-shorter-shortest

2. 以e结尾的,加-er或-est, 如:large-larger-largest, nice-nicer-nicest.

3.以辅音字母+y结尾的, 变y 为i 再加-er或-est, 如:busy-busier-busiest, heavy-heavier-heaviest.

4. 以重读闭音节,一个辅音字母结尾的,双写该字母,再加-er或-est, 如:big-bigger-biggest, thin-thinner-thinnest.

5.      多音节的词,前加more, most, 如: beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful.

6.      good-better-best

四、be 动词,助动词。

现阶段be动词形式有: am, is, are, were, was, isn’t, aren’t, weren’t, wasn’t

助动词形式有: do, does, did, don’t, doesn’t, didn’t

※    1. 在英语句子中进行变化的时候, 有be动词的就在be动词上变化,变 “过去”, “否定”;

            否定                                              过去         否定

am-------am not(第一人称 “I” )           am, is ------ was --------- wasn’t

is ------- isn’t  (第三人称)                  are  ------ were --------- weren’t

are------aren’t  (you和其它人称)

2. 没有be动词的就要加助动词;

                                否定          过去     过去否定

do                        -----don’t   ------did---------didn’t

does(第三人称单数)-----doesn’t ------ -did---------didn’t

五.人称代词

主语

物主代词

宾格

形容词性

名词性

I

my

mine

me

she

her

hers

her

he

his

his

him

it

its

its

it

you

your

yours

you

we

our

ours

us

they

their

theirs

them


 六.特殊疑问词

           What is this?

         What is this in English?

           What is the matter?

           What is the weather like?

           What is the country like?

           What is she/he/

           What do you like?

   What   What does he do?

           What do you have for…?

           What colour…?

           What class…?

           What grade…?

           What time…?

           What day…?

           What do/does/did+…?

       How are you?

       How old…?

 How    How many…?

       How much…?

       How long…?

       How do/does/did+…? 

Which +n.+ (be动词/助动词)+…?

Whose+ n.+ (be动词/助动词)+…?

Where+ v. (be动词/助动词)+sb. +…?

When +v. (be动词/助动词)+ sb.+…?

Who +v. (be动词/助动词/行为动词)+sb.+…?

Why +v. (be动词/助动词)+ sb. +…?


※有can, will, must这几个词的句子,所有的句型转换都在此词变化。

1.数词变化规律及读法口诀
两大数词基和序,前表数量后第几。 构成先谈基数词,1至12请认真记。
13至19teen结尾齐,ty结尾表示几十。 若要表达几十几,几十短横1到9。
One hundred 一百记,若表几百几十几。 几百 and几十几,基数规律上述里。
再把序数谈仔细,第一至三独立记。 第四至十九结尾th,第结尾th,第廿到九十有规律。基数基础y变ieth。第几十几有特例,第几十由基数起,几用序数有道理。
第一百one hundred。若说第一百几十几。 One hundred and第几十几。谈此即告一段落。序有缩式莫忘记,上述须用心体味。

2.句子种类口诀
句子按用途分四大体,陈述疑问感叹和祈使。陈述用来叙述一件事。疑问主要用来提问题。祈使表达命令和请求。表达强烈感情感叹句。上述九是句种之定义。祈使主语you被抛弃。若将其变成否定形式,动词之前加don’t是正理。

3.陈述句变感叹句口诀
陈述变感叹两句套。What 或How加其他成分表。What [a(an)]形加名用的妙。
剩余照写句末用感叹号。 How 后副和形是正确道,其后照写感叹号堪称妙。

4.一般现在时用法及句型转换口诀
经常习惯动作和真理,是一般现在时的定义。构成除单三皆动原式。若逢动词第三人称体,
动词变单三式有道理。若要变成否定的形式, 动词原形之前加don’t,除单三人称外无特例。
单三式前doesn’t动原基。句首Do,Does疑问起,Does用单三人称限制,单三还原形没大问题。

5.变动词单三人称口诀
一般情况动词尾-s加。O,s,ch,sh结尾“-es”没有差。 辅音加y 去y为“-ies”是方法。

6.现在进行时及句型转换口诀
现在正在进行之动作,用现在进行时来掌舵。构成be加现在分词妥,be的用法如同系动词。
切记be是助动词没错,be后面加not否定拓。Be提句首疑问有把握,上述内容记清好处多。

7.现在分词构成口诀
词尾直加-ing是一般式,若遇无音e去之加-ing。
重读闭音一辅音字母尾,双写该字母-ing是正里。

8.形容词和副词比较级和最高级构成口诀
结尾直加-er,-est属一般,详细构成方法逐一来侃谈。
一辅音结尾重读闭音节看,辅音双写-er,-est是习惯。
辅音加y(ly)除外有型感,按照去y,-er,-iest方法办。
上述皆属单音部分双音段,下面把多音节规律来看看。
词前加more,most此规律唤。规则变化到此已全都谈完。
有些不规则变化请你记全。“双好”better,best记的宽。
“坏病”worse,worst莫记乱。“双多” more,most不用管
“老、远”两种形式别记篡,“有点”less,least记清盼。

9.感观使役动词记忆和使用口诀
1.记忆口诀:二听四看一感觉,使役动词有三个。
或:一感二听三使四看。
一感;feel 二听:hear,listen to 三使:make ,let ,have
四看:look at,see,watch,notice
使用口诀:感使动词真奇怪,to在句中象妖怪。
主动句里它走开,被动句里它回来。
动词let要除外,to词可来可不来。

10.规则动词加-ed的读音口诀
元音后[t],浊音后[d],[t][d ]后读[id]。
注:浊音包括浊辅音和元音。

11.时刻表达法口诀
时刻表达法作用大,衣食住行离不开它。 整点时把点钟数打,时分俱全不好表达。
请记下列几种方法:先时后分莫给弄差。 若要说明几点过几分,可把past和after来抓。
前分后时不能搞差,要说几点几分差, to前分后时来表达。 

12.形容词和副词的比较等级及用法句型口诀
一者比较用原级。比较级限二者比。三者三者往上比,最高级的用法起。
若要比项掌握齐,比较范围要搞细。比较级二句型记,做出句子没问题。
若甲乙程度相同,as…as 结构体。

PEP小学英语重点句型语法总结与分析

三年级起点的人教版PEP教材在小学阶段共有8册书,其涉及的重要语法知识主要有7种:to be句型、there be句型、一般现在时句型、现在进行时句型、一般过去时句型、情态动词can引导的句型、be going to句型等。现以5——8册书为例,简要分析如下:

[一] to be句型:用于介绍个人情况如姓名、健康状况、身份、国籍、家庭成员、朋友、职业等,描述地点、颜色、四季、日期、星期几等,该句型广泛分布于各册教材中,其中5——8册的句型主要有:

1. Who’s your English teacher?   Mr. Carter.  
2. What’s he like?  He’s tall and strong.
3. Is she quiet? No, she isn’t.  She is very active.
4. Is she strict?  Yes, she is, but she’s very kind.
5. What day is it today? It’s Wednesday.
6. What’s your favourite fruit/food…? 
7. They’re sweet/ sour/ salty/ healthy/…
8. When is your birthday? It’s in May.
9. My birthday is in June.  Uncle Bill’s birthday is in June, too.
10. Is her birthday in June?  Yes, it is.   
11. What’s the date? 
12.This is Zhang Peng.
13. Where is the cinema, please? It’s next to the hospital.
14. How tall are you?  I’m 164 cm tall.    
15. You are shorter than me.
16.You’re 4 cm taller than me.  
17.How heavy are you?  I’m 48 kg.
18. I’m thinner than you, and shorter.
19. What’s the matter with you?   My throat is sore.
20. How are you, Liu Yun / Sarah?

[二] there be句型:表示存在,即:“某处有某物”或“某时有某事”。句型基本结构为:There is+ 可数名词单数或不可数名词+时间或地点。There are+可数名词复数+地点。该句型主要分布在第5册的Unit 5和Unit 6中,如:

1. There are two bedrooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a living room.
2. There is a mirror, a bed and a big closet.
3. Is there a forest in the park?  Yes, there is.
4. Is there a river?  No, there isn’t.
5. Are there any pandas in the mountains?  No, there aren’t.
6. Are there any fish in the rivers?   Yes, there are.

[三] 一般现在时句型:表示习惯性的动作或行为,或现在存在着的状况。句型基本结构为:主语+行为动词+其他。当主语是第三人称单数时,要在动词原形后面加s或es,其他人称作主语时则用动词原形,在问句及否定句中需要用助动词do或does。这种句型通常有一些标志词,如:usually  often   sometimes  never always等。该句型主要分布在第5册Unit2&3,第6册Unit1&2, 第7册Unit4,5,6, 第8册Unit2中。如:

Book5:
1. What do you have on Thursdays?  We have English, math and science on Thursdays.   
2. What do you do on Saturdays?  I watch TV on Saturdays.
3. I do my homework.
4. What do you have for lunch on Mondays?  We have tomatoes, tofu and fish.
5. I like fruit. But I don’t like grapes.

Book6:
1. When do you eat dinner? I eat dinner at 7:00 in the evening.
2. When do you get up?  I usually get up at 12:00 noon.
3. What do you do on the weekend?  Usually I watch TV and go shopping.
4. Sometimes I visit my grandparents. I often play football. Sometimes I go hiking.
5. Which season do you like best? I like winter best.
6. Why do you like summer/winter?

Book7:
1. How do you go to school, Sarah? 
2. Usually I go to school on foot.  Sometimes I go by bike.
3. I like collecting stamps. He likes collecting stamps, too.
4. Does she teach math?  Yes, she does.
5. Does she teach English? No, she doesn’t.  She teaches math.
6. What does your mother do?  What does your father do?
7. Where does she work?  She works in a car company.
8. How does she go to work?  She goes to work by bus.
9. Where does the rain come from?  It comes from the clouds.
10. Where does the cloud come from?  It comes from the vapour.
11. Where does the vapour come from?   It comes from the water in the river.
12. The sun shines and the water becomes vapour.
13. How do you do that? 

Book8:
1. My nose hurts.
2. How do you feel?    I feel sick.   How does Amy feel?
3. You look so happy.  You look sad today. 

[四] 现在进行时句型:表示说话时正在进行的动作或事件,或在短期内正在进行的动作或存在的情况。标志词是:now 也常用在Look! Listen!等后面。句型主要结构为:be动词(am, is, are)+动词现在分词(v. ing)。该句型主要分布在第6册Unit4, 5, 6中。如:

1. What are you doing?  I’m doing the dishes.   I’m reading a book.
2. Grandpa is writing a letter.  Brother is doing homework. Mom is cooking dinner in the kitchen.
3. He is writing an e-mail in the study.
3. What is it doing ?  It’s eating bananas.  
4. What is she doing ?   She’s jumping.  
5. What are they doing ?  They’re swimming.  They’ re climbing trees.
6. Are you eating lunch?   No, we aren’t.
7. Are they eating the honey?  Yes, they are.
8. Is he playing chess?  Yes, he is. 
9. Is she counting insects?  No, she isn’t.

[五] 一般过去时句型:表示过去发生的而现在已经结束的事件、动作或情况。句型基本结构为:主语+动词过去式+其他。标志词通常是:yesterday, last week ,  last year 等,在问句与否定句中要用助动词did。该句型分布在第8册Unit3&4中。如:

1.What did you do last weekend?   I played football.
2. Did you help them clean their room?  Yes, I did.
3.What did you do yesterday?   I went fishing.
4. Did you read book?   Yes, I did.
5. Did you clean your room?  No, I didn’t.
6.Where did you go on your holiday?  I went to Xinjiang.
7. What did you do there?  I sang and danced with my new friends.
8. How did you go there?  I went by train.

此外,一般过去时也可用来表示客气的询问。如:
Book3 Unit5, Book 5 Unit3中的:What would you like for lunch? I’d like some…

[六] 情态动词can引导的句型:表示有能力做某事,can后面的动词要用原形。该句型主要分布在第5册Unit4和第7册Unit1中。如:

Book4: 1. What can you do?   I can sweep the floor.   I can cook the meals.
2. I can water the flowers.    
3. Can you make the bed?    No, I can’t. 
4. Can you use a computer?    Yes, I can.

Book7:  How can I get to Zhongshan Park?  You can go by the No. 15 bus.

[七] 将来时:我们的教材中出现过两种表示将来时的句型,即:will和be going to句型,主要以be going to句型为主,表示将要做某事或打算做某事。句型主要结构:am/is/are + going to + v.原形。标志词有:tomorrow  next weekend  this morning  this weekend  next…be going to
Book7:
1. What are you going to do this weekend?   I am going to visit my grandparents.
2. Where are you going?   I am going to the cinema.
3. How is he going to Beijing?    He is going to Beijing by plane.
4. When is she going to Xiashan?    She is going to go there at 9:00 am.

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